How do you think we should avoid food shocks and manage food waste in order to feed the increasing world population? Based on the article, give your suggestions and reasons for your point of view.
We should prepare for food shocks by increasing agricultural production in order to provide enough food with the growing population in the world. At the same time, we should control food waste, especially happening in rich countries, and make food more accessible to the people in poorer countries.
My suggestion for increasing food production is to make agriculture more adaptable to changing weather. Due to the unpredictable weather patterns these days, the land which has little rainfall becomes drier and drier. On the contrast, there are some areas where it begins to rain more often and more heavily. If we cultivate the same kind of crops as we have been, crops won’t adapt to the changed environment, and we can’t expect good harvest. However, if we apply scientific technology to plants, we could produce plants more resistant to extreme weather. In fact, we have already had genetic engineered crops which can survive dry weather or extremely hot weather. We should try to promote crops resistant to extreme weather to be widely adopted in many agricultural areas in the world.
Driverless cars may become more common in the near future. As the article explained, there are advantages and disadvantages in driving these types of vehicles. Based on the article and your own experiences and ideas, please answer this question: What are possible compromises that allow people fully to benefit from the new technology of self-driving cars. （２０１７年２月実施 国際教養大学・A日程）
The most acceptable compromise is that driverless cars are to be programmed to save the most people if accidents can’t be avoided. In this case, people will be reluctant to buy automated cars, because people hope to protect themselves first of all if they are passengers in a self-driving car. However, using self-driving cars gives the society great benefit because accidents caused by human errors or mistakes will be reduced if artificial intelligent have take the place of human drivers.
The article discusses the problem of how driverless cars are programmed when an accident happens. However, first of all, there will be fewer accidents if automated cars are widely used. Human beings sometimes break traffic rules. They speed over the limitation. They drive a car after drinking alcohol. These will lead to serious accidents, the killing of pedestrians, passengers and drivers themselves. However, artificial intelligent never breaks traffic rules. It never drinks alcohol, so its judgement never be disturbed.
Describe your future career and how you plan to prepare for it.
I’d like to be an English teacher in high school. To realize my future plan, I am studying hard for an English competency test. The test requires four skills in English, and I myself must be proficient in English in order to teach English in the future. (47 words)
In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese style work-life balance.（２０１７年２月実施・北海道大学・医学部及び他学部）
The workplaces in japan give people who work there some advantages such as job security and seniority system. Once a company accept a person as a full-time worker, they wouldn’t fire him/her unless there is a sufficient reason to do so. Workers can continue to work for the same company until the retirement without worrying about being fired. On the other hand, companies require the loyalty from their employees. They work longer, late, on weekends without being paid in order to show their loyalty to their company. (87 words)
What can people in Japan do to improve the experiences of international tourists? (2017.2月実施・九州大学・医学部および医学部以外)
To improve the experiences of foreign visitors to Japan, we should offer a real-life experience to them. Now, more visitors than ever come to Japan from abroad. They go to famous tourist spots such as Kyoto. Seeing such historic sites may be a very good and enjoyable experience, but they will go back to their countries without knowing what the life of ordinary Japanese people is like. Thus, if we offer a room of our house, for example, as accommodation, they will have an idea of the life of Japanese people. They surely go back to their home country with good experiences and memories. (104 words)
・Why should their children inherit this enormous wealth, for which they personally have never worked for a day?
・It is hard to feel sympathy for today’s super-rich, who by and large have gained their wealth as assets rose rather than by years of effort.
・Today, many charities gain considerable funding because moneys would, if left untouched, fall to the government via the estate tax.
・Not all countries have an inheritance or estate tax.
・Some dislike the state interfering with the efforts of individuals. They argue that this is a tax which punishes hard work and success.
・Estate taxes take again from someone who has already paid taxes throughout a working life.
・in places such as UK, where considerable amount of the nation’s heritage has been held by noble families
・abolition of the U.S. estate tax would boost GDP and create around 140,000 jobs.
Should the Japanese government abolish the inheritance tax?
No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country.
・a decent national minimum wage would actually stimulate the domestic economy.
・Putting cash into the hands of the poorest ensures it would be spent locally, thus boosting consumption.
・As the bosses at two leading US discount retailers have stated recently, they are in favor of an increased federal minimum wage: most of their customers are among the poorly‑paid.
・a modest increase in wages did not appear to cause any significant harm to employment; in some cases, a rise in the minimum wage even resulted in a slight increase in employment
・Efficiency is actually encouraged by a minimum age.
・Workers are encouraged to gain new skills and to invest in their surroundings.
・Poorly‑paid workers quit early….Yet where hourly rates are higher, it is clear that workers are happy to stay and master the business. This rewards the companies that invest in their workers and reduces hiring costs. Most long‑established firms that have agreed to pay a decent living wage have reported a better standard of work.
・for employers, the minimum wage provides an indirect incentive to invest in technology and increase productivity. Firms can no longer simply count on cheap labor to maximize profits.
In 100 to 150 words in English, write a short essay in response to the following statement.
You must always be honest with your friends.（慶応・看護・2017年2月実施）
この問い方にはどう答えてよいのか答えにくい面がある。単純に賛否を述べI agree with ~ / I disagree with ~と述べるのに違和感がある。賛否を考えていくのがまずは基本だが、多面的に自分の意見についての具体的事例・理由を考えていくようにすることが求められている。
I think people must always be honest with their friends. For example, I have a friend who I have been with for a long time. He is very honest, and gives me sincerely advice when I consult him. Sometimes what he frankly says hurts my feelings, but his advice is very helpful because he considers my ultimate happiness. If he were dishonest, he could flatter me and say what pleases me. However, he isn’t, so I can trust him. On the other hand, there was a person who I had thought was a friend. He once concealed an important fact, so I nearly failed in business because I didn’t know the fact. Since then, I have stopped calling him a friend. In conclusion, you must always be honest with your friends if you are to be friend with them. (139 words)
There are several things which are necessary for a good leader.
A good leader needs the ability to set up a clear goal to the people around him or her. The clear vision of future achievement will inspire a group of people to work and cooperate with each other. If each member of the group has his or her own goal, then it will be difficult to achieve a really great thing. The ability or skill of each individual is limited and different from person to person. However, if individuals gather, form a group, and set a goal, a great thing which cannot be achieved by an individual is realized. At that time, the group needs a leader who present a clear image of goal, and prompt people to cooperate.
Another characteristic which is necessary for a good leader is that he or she ignores his or her own benefit but give a priority to the benefit or welfare of the whole group or the whole society. For example, Gandhi, who was a political leader of independence movement in India, had many followers because he was very unselfish in terms of money. His life was modest but his measures to get his country to be independent were really noble, considerate of the benefit of the whole society.
In summary, what I think is necessary for a good leader is the ability to set a clear goal to a group of people and clean character, such as being unselfish. (248 words)
We have two important family events that we share among family members. One is the celebration of the New Year’s Day, and the other is on the day of Christmas.
The celebration of the New Year’s Day is traditional in Japan, so our family follows the tradition. On the day, family members gather and eat together a special meal for the day. Children are given extra allowances, and then we go to shrine to pray for the safety and healthy life for the whole of the year. The reason why we think that celebration of the New Year’s Day is important is that it is the tradition in Japan. However, tradition has meaning, and we think following the tradition has also meaning. For example, eating special dishes on the day has come from the idea that some foods have a magical power to give people a longer life. So our family also think celebrating the day and following the tradition is very important.
The other family tradition is that we gather and eat together, and after that, we watch a movie on Christmas day. We and Christians, but for the world peace, we celebrate the important day of another religion. The good thing about this family tradition is that we always a classical movie together after celebration. Watching a good movie is, of course, fun, but the important thing is not just to have a fun time. We can also talk about what each of us think of the movie which we have just watched. Year by year, we watch one movie after another, and our memory about experiencing seeing a good movie and spending the same time together has accumulated. We think such memories are important to feel mentally rich, though they don’t provide us with material richness. (299 words)
Although boxing has a history of over a hundred years as an Olympic sport, some people argue that boxing and other sports based on physical violence should have no place in the Olympics. Do you agree with this statement? Write a paragraph giving one or more convincing reasons to support your opinion.
I don’t believe the comment that sports needing vigorous physical contacts such as boxing are excluded from the Olympics is fair. First of all, we must separate sports played in a certain rule from real violence. Real violence is, of course, not sport. It is a kind of crime and violation of humanities. When one person who has overwhelming power to another hits or attacks another who has no way to protect himself against, it is violence, not sport. On the contrary, sports such as boxing has a rule of when the game will end and how to judge who wins and who is lost. In addition, in almost all games, the power or ability of both players are made almost equal by devising combination of players. For example, boxers are divided into classes according to their weight, so in boxing one of the players doesn’t possibly have overwhelming physical advantage such as heights or weights over others. So because boxing is sport, not violence, it should have a place in Olympics.(172 words)
I think there is too much violence in movies.
I think there is too much violence in movies. In real life, we can’t see or hear so much violence as in movies. However, there may be reasons why violence is featured in movies.
One reason is that movies are more interesting and attractive if violent scenes are inserted to the plot of movies than if not. People actually seek for unrealistic things in movies. If movies are not so different from their life, no one bothers to go to movies. Violence is what they rarely see in their life, and seeing violence will stimulate their instinct. As a result, the movies featuring violence attract more people and make profits, and similar movies which also feature violence will be produced again and again.
Some people worry about the impact of violent movies on people, especially on children. They claim that people tend to imitate what they see or hear, so people who watch violence in movies will act violently. However, I don’t think this claim has scientific support, so there is no need to worry about. People can distinguish fictional world from real life and understand the violence in movies is just fictional. When people watch violence in movies, their instinct for violence is satisfied. thus, there would be less violent inclination in people.
I saw some movies featuring violence. Among such movies, I love ‘Got Father.’ It’s about the history of a mafia family in America. A lot of people are killed in that movie. There is too much violence in this movie, but this movie is really great in spite of the violence. In order to attract people to movies, violence will be used in the future, too. However, there is nothing to worry about, because there is less violence in real life than in movies. (298 words)
How careful are you about what you eat for breakfast? Write 80 words or so in English to describe your habits regarding what many consider to be the most important meal of the day, making sure you give appropriate reasons and explanations.
How careful are you about what you eat for breakfast?
describe your habits regarding what many consider to be the most important meal of the day
I am careful not to skip breakfast, and when I eat breakfast, I try to eat rice, not bread. Breakfast is important because it gives energy of activity in the morning. Without it, your brain is short of energy and won’t function well. In the term of nutrition, breakfast needs to be balanced. If you eat cooked rice, you naturally want to eat miso soup and another dish using vegetable, egg, or fish. As a result, you can eat balanced breakfast. (81 words)
From 1860, the world population gradually began to increase and will be expected to peak in 2040, reaching 8 billion, and then sligthly to decrease toward the year of 2100.
It is predicted that the population in developed regions will stay almost all the same, 1.2 billion, while the population in developing areas will probably rise from 5 billion to 6.9 billion.
A problem humanity will face is food shortage. According the line graph, the population growth will be expected to continue until 2040. However, the condition for agriculture in the world is not so good as it used to be, because the land for food is destructed or polluted by the development of industries. As a result, food supply will not meet the demand of the increase in population. Another problem is that population will rapidly age, especially in developed areas, and society will have difficult in adapting to that condition. The bar graph shows the stability of the population in developed areas, which means that in those areas, there will be more and more elderly people with less and less children. This causes the problem of who will care elderly people. Care workers will be short in number, and perhaps the workers will have to be recruited in developing areas. However, this will change social structure of both developed and developing areas, which will also bring about distress to both areas. (171 words)
2017年2月実施の旭川医科大学の自由英作文は、girls / boysという語彙を使っていることからも子どものスポーツに男女別を持ち込むことについて自分の意見を英語で述べることが求められている。
Should girls and boys be allowed to play on the same sports teams? What is your opinion? Give reasons with examples stating why some sports should or should not have boys and girls playing together. Write an essay in English.
I think in almost all sports girls and boys are allowed to participate together as long as they are primary school students. The major reason why I think so is among primary school students both girls and boys are almost the same in terms of stamina and physical strength. In fact, a very famous male Judo player says he was beaten by a female player when he was in the second grade in primary school.
Another reason why girls and boys should not be separated when they play sports is that they aren’t so conscious about their sexes when they are primary school students. After they go to middle junior high school, sports should be divided into separate teams both for females only and for males only. In that case, both players can concentrate on their play.
In conclusion, because females and males are biologically different, they naturally play separate sports except mixed table tennis, or badminton if they are adults. However, as long as they are elementary school students, difference between females and males haven’t shown yet clearly. Therefore, I think both girls and boys can participate together in every kind of sport. (194 words)