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大学入試英語対策。文法から長文・自由英作文・和文英訳まで学習法や解答へのアプローチを解説しています

自由英作文の解答を見ることができます。どのように発想し、どのような表現を用いれば、題意に沿った内容の英文エッセイが書けるか、参考にしてください。

更新日: 2018年01月17日

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kawaiinaさん

自由英作文:過去問研究「世界の食糧問題の解決法」

How do you think we should avoid food shocks and manage food waste in order to feed the increasing world population? Based on the article, give your suggestions and reasons for your point of view.

(国際教養大学・2017年実施B日程)

【解答例】
  We should prepare for food shocks by increasing agricultural production in order to provide enough food with the growing population in the world. At the same time, we should control food waste, especially happening in rich countries, and make food more accessible to the people in poorer countries.

My suggestion for increasing food production is to make agriculture more adaptable to changing weather. Due to the unpredictable weather patterns these days, the land which has little rainfall becomes drier and drier. On the contrast, there are some areas where it begins to rain more often and more heavily. If we cultivate the same kind of crops as we have been, crops won’t adapt to the changed environment, and we can’t expect good harvest. However, if we apply scientific technology to plants, we could produce plants more resistant to extreme weather. In fact, we have already had genetic engineered crops which can survive dry weather or extremely hot weather. We should try to promote crops resistant to extreme weather to be widely adopted in many agricultural areas in the world.

(最終段落は以下で見ることができます)
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840930.html

自由英作文:模範解答:「自動運転」

Driverless cars may become more common in the near future. As the article explained, there are advantages and disadvantages in driving these types of vehicles. Based on the article and your own experiences and ideas, please answer this question: What are possible compromises that allow people fully to benefit from the new technology of self-driving cars. (2017年2月実施 国際教養大学・A日程)

【解答例】
The most acceptable compromise is that driverless cars are to be programmed to save the most people if accidents can’t be avoided. In this case, people will be reluctant to buy automated cars, because people hope to protect themselves first of all if they are passengers in a self-driving car. However, using self-driving cars gives the society great benefit because accidents caused by human errors or mistakes will be reduced if artificial intelligent have take the place of human drivers.

The article discusses the problem of how driverless cars are programmed when an accident happens. However, first of all, there will be fewer accidents if automated cars are widely used. Human beings sometimes break traffic rules. They speed over the limitation. They drive a car after drinking alcohol. These will lead to serious accidents, the killing of pedestrians, passengers and drivers themselves. However, artificial intelligent never breaks traffic rules. It never drinks alcohol, so its judgement never be disturbed.

最終段落は以下で見ることができます。
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840881.html

自由英作文・過去問研究:将来の職業

Describe your future career and how you plan to prepare for it.

(2017年2月実施・青山学院・文学部)

【解答例】50語前後

I’d like to be an English teacher in high school. To realize my future plan, I am studying hard for an English competency test. The test requires four skills in English, and I myself must be proficient in English in order to teach English in the future. (47 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840835.html

自由英作文・過去問講義:日本人の働き方のいい点・悪い点

In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese style work-life balance.(2017年2月実施・北海道大学・医学部及び他学部)

字数の指定は70~100語で1段落で書くこと。

【解答例】
The workplaces in japan give people who work there some advantages such as job security and seniority system. Once a company accept a person as a full-time worker, they wouldn’t fire him/her unless there is a sufficient reason to do so. Workers can continue to work for the same company until the retirement without worrying about being fired. On the other hand, companies require the loyalty from their employees. They work longer, late, on weekends without being paid in order to show their loyalty to their company. (87 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840805.html

自由英作文過去問講義:外国人観光客の受け入れ

What can people in Japan do to improve the experiences of international tourists? (2017.2月実施・九州大学・医学部および医学部以外)

設問の意図を正しく理解し、意図に沿った答えになっている必要がある。この設問は、「日本を訪れる外国人観光客に対して」「外国人観光客の体験内容を向上させるために」「私たち日本人ができることは何か」を答えることが求められている。本当に驚くほど、設問の意図を読み間違え、違う内容の解答を書く受験生が多いの要注意。

【解答例】(九州大学では100語前後で書くことが求められれている)
To improve the experiences of foreign visitors to Japan, we should offer a real-life experience to them. Now, more visitors than ever come to Japan from abroad. They go to famous tourist spots such as Kyoto. Seeing such historic sites may be a very good and enjoyable experience, but they will go back to their countries without knowing what the life of ordinary Japanese people is like. Thus, if we offer a room of our house, for example, as accommodation, they will have an idea of the life of Japanese people. They surely go back to their home country with good experiences and memories. (104 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840789.html

自由英作文:過去問講義「相続税の是非」 (2017.2月実施・慶応大学・経済学部)

本文から引用できる論点
【賛成】
①不労所得は良くない。(お金を稼いだのは親で、子どもは貢献していない)
・Why should their children inherit this enormous wealth, for which they personally have never worked for a day?

②働いたのではなく、単に不動産が値上がりしただけ
・It is hard to feel sympathy for today’s super-rich, who by and large have gained their wealth as assets rose rather than by years of effort.

③相続税があることで、慈善事業が成り立つ
・Today, many charities gain considerable funding because moneys would, if left untouched, fall to the government via the estate tax.

【反対】
①多くの国には存在せず、先進国では日本とフランスくらい
・Not all countries have an inheritance or estate tax.

②国家が干渉するのは良くない
・Some dislike the state interfering with the efforts of individuals. They argue that this is a tax which punishes hard work and success.

③二重課税になる
・Estate taxes take again from someone who has already paid taxes throughout a working life.

④城、絵画を保有している貴族に課税すると、国宝が失われてしまう
・in places such as UK, where considerable amount of the nation’s heritage has been held by noble families

⑤相続税がないと経済が活性化する
・abolition of the U.S. estate tax would boost GDP and create around 140,000 jobs.

【設問】
Should the Japanese government abolish the inheritance tax?

【解答】は以下で見れます。
 http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840631.html

自由英作文講義:「最低賃金制度」(参考:(2107年・2月実施・慶応大学・経済学部))

そもそも「最低賃金制度」について知っている必要がある。(これは英語の知識とは、関係ない)

ただし、本文でこんな説明がある。もちろん、慶応大学経済学部の自由英作文は、英文で述べられていることを前提にしてよいのが特徴だ。
No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country.


これは、「最低賃金」を支持する立場のアメリカの大統領が企業に向かって宣言している文言だが、ここから「最低賃金制度」とは「労働者が生き抜くために最低限必要な賃金」のことであり、政府が定めて企業が守る義務があるものである。

「最低賃金」をめぐって本文に出てきた賛否の意見を整理してみる。

【賛成】
論点:
①地方経済を活性化する
・a decent national minimum wage would actually stimulate the domestic economy.
・Putting cash into the hands of the poorest ensures it would be spent locally, thus boosting consumption.


具体例
・As the bosses at two leading US discount retailers have stated recently, they are in favor of an increased federal minimum wage: most of their customers are among the poorly‑paid.


②古くから信じられていた悪影響説は間違いで、経済に好影響を与える。
・a modest increase in wages did not appear to cause any significant harm to employment; in some cases, a rise in the minimum wage even resulted in a slight increase in employment


③労働者が長期的に勤務し、技術を身に着けようとする。+雇用者側も低賃金労働に頼ることができないので技術革新と生産性向上に投資しようとする=経済が効率化する
・Efficiency is actually encouraged by a minimum age.
・Workers are encouraged to gain new skills and to invest in their surroundings.
・Poorly‑paid workers quit early….Yet where hourly rates are higher, it is clear that workers are happy to stay and master the business. This rewards the companies that invest in their workers and reduces hiring costs. Most long‑established firms that have agreed to pay a decent living wage have reported a better standard of work.
・for employers, the minimum wage provides an indirect incentive to invest in technology and increase productivity. Firms can no longer simply count on cheap labor to maximize profits.



続きはここから見ることができます
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840587.html

自由英作文対策:友人には常に正直であるべきか?

In 100 to 150 words in English, write a short essay in response to the following statement.
You must always be honest with your friends.(慶応・看護・2017年2月実施)

この問い方にはどう答えてよいのか答えにくい面がある。単純に賛否を述べI agree with ~ / I disagree with ~と述べるのに違和感がある。賛否を考えていくのがまずは基本だが、多面的に自分の意見についての具体的事例・理由を考えていくようにすることが求められている。

ある大学で出題された題材が、他大学で出題される可能性が高いのが自由英作文だ。特に近年は、慶応大学で出題された自由英作文の題材が数年後に早稲田大学で出題されている。早稲田を志望する人も、ぜひこの題材に取り組んでほしい。

【解答例】
I think people must always be honest with their friends. For example, I have a friend who I have been with for a long time. He is very honest, and gives me sincerely advice when I consult him. Sometimes what he frankly says hurts my feelings, but his advice is very helpful because he considers my ultimate happiness. If he were dishonest, he could flatter me and say what pleases me. However, he isn’t, so I can trust him. On the other hand, there was a person who I had thought was a friend. He once concealed an important fact, so I nearly failed in business because I didn’t know the fact. Since then, I have stopped calling him a friend. In conclusion, you must always be honest with your friends if you are to be friend with them. (139 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840540.html

自由英作文:予想問題「良いリーダーの資質とは」

あなたが考える良いリーダーの資質とは何か?

英語で自分の考えを述べてほしい。

【模範解答例】
There are several things which are necessary for a good leader.

A good leader needs the ability to set up a clear goal to the people around him or her. The clear vision of future achievement will inspire a group of people to work and cooperate with each other. If each member of the group has his or her own goal, then it will be difficult to achieve a really great thing. The ability or skill of each individual is limited and different from person to person. However, if individuals gather, form a group, and set a goal, a great thing which cannot be achieved by an individual is realized. At that time, the group needs a leader who present a clear image of goal, and prompt people to cooperate.

Another characteristic which is necessary for a good leader is that he or she ignores his or her own benefit but give a priority to the benefit or welfare of the whole group or the whole society. For example, Gandhi, who was a political leader of independence movement in India, had many followers because he was very unselfish in terms of money. His life was modest but his measures to get his country to be independent were really noble, considerate of the benefit of the whole society.

In summary, what I think is necessary for a good leader is the ability to set a clear goal to a group of people and clean character, such as being unselfish. (248 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65840122.html

自由英作文:予想問題「あなたの家族が大事にしている家族恒例行事」

このような問題のポイント

行事を紹介することももちろん大事だが、それがどのような行事であり、なぜそれが大事なのかを、あなたやあなたの家族のことを知らない一般の人が読んでも伝わるように書くこと。

自分の志望大学の過去の入試問題の傾向に合わせて字数の設定をすること。100語程度の制限字数であれば、段落分けもせずに、紹介する行事も一つでよい。

以下の解答例は、300字程度で段落分けをすることも求められる難易度の高い自由英作文を想定したもの。

(解答例)
We have two important family events that we share among family members. One is the celebration of the New Year’s Day, and the other is on the day of Christmas.

The celebration of the New Year’s Day is traditional in Japan, so our family follows the tradition. On the day, family members gather and eat together a special meal for the day. Children are given extra allowances, and then we go to shrine to pray for the safety and healthy life for the whole of the year. The reason why we think that celebration of the New Year’s Day is important is that it is the tradition in Japan. However, tradition has meaning, and we think following the tradition has also meaning. For example, eating special dishes on the day has come from the idea that some foods have a magical power to give people a longer life. So our family also think celebrating the day and following the tradition is very important.

The other family tradition is that we gather and eat together, and after that, we watch a movie on Christmas day. We and Christians, but for the world peace, we celebrate the important day of another religion. The good thing about this family tradition is that we always a classical movie together after celebration. Watching a good movie is, of course, fun, but the important thing is not just to have a fun time. We can also talk about what each of us think of the movie which we have just watched. Year by year, we watch one movie after another, and our memory about experiencing seeing a good movie and spending the same time together has accumulated. We think such memories are important to feel mentally rich, though they don’t provide us with material richness. (299 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65839940.html

自由英作文:模範解答:早稲田大学・法学部「スポーツと暴力とオリンピック」

Although boxing has a history of over a hundred years as an Olympic sport, some people argue that boxing and other sports based on physical violence should have no place in the Olympics. Do you agree with this statement? Write a paragraph giving one or more convincing reasons to support your opinion.
(2016早稲田・法)

【模範解答】
I don’t believe the comment that sports needing vigorous physical contacts such as boxing are excluded from the Olympics is fair. First of all, we must separate sports played in a certain rule from real violence. Real violence is, of course, not sport. It is a kind of crime and violation of humanities. When one person who has overwhelming power to another hits or attacks another who has no way to protect himself against, it is violence, not sport. On the contrary, sports such as boxing has a rule of when the game will end and how to judge who wins and who is lost. In addition, in almost all games, the power or ability of both players are made almost equal by devising combination of players. For example, boxers are divided into classes according to their weight, so in boxing one of the players doesn’t possibly have overwhelming physical advantage such as heights or weights over others. So because boxing is sport, not violence, it should have a place in Olympics.(172 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65839878.html

自由英作文:予想問題「映画の中の暴力」

予想問題:次のコメントに賛成・反対するか。どちらかの立場を選び、その意見を支える根拠も述べて、英語で自分の考えをまとめて述べよ。

I think there is too much violence in movies.

model answer
I think there is too much violence in movies. In real life, we can’t see or hear so much violence as in movies. However, there may be reasons why violence is featured in movies.

One reason is that movies are more interesting and attractive if violent scenes are inserted to the plot of movies than if not. People actually seek for unrealistic things in movies. If movies are not so different from their life, no one bothers to go to movies. Violence is what they rarely see in their life, and seeing violence will stimulate their instinct. As a result, the movies featuring violence attract more people and make profits, and similar movies which also feature violence will be produced again and again.

Some people worry about the impact of violent movies on people, especially on children. They claim that people tend to imitate what they see or hear, so people who watch violence in movies will act violently. However, I don’t think this claim has scientific support, so there is no need to worry about. People can distinguish fictional world from real life and understand the violence in movies is just fictional. When people watch violence in movies, their instinct for violence is satisfied. thus, there would be less violent inclination in people.

I saw some movies featuring violence. Among such movies, I love ‘Got Father.’ It’s about the history of a mafia family in America. A lot of people are killed in that movie. There is too much violence in this movie, but this movie is really great in spite of the violence. In order to attract people to movies, violence will be used in the future, too. However, there is nothing to worry about, because there is less violence in real life than in movies. (298 words)

自由英作文対策:食の重要性=朝食について

参考:2017・2月実施・慶応大学・医学部

How careful are you about what you eat for breakfast? Write 80 words or so in English to describe your habits regarding what many consider to be the most important meal of the day, making sure you give appropriate reasons and explanations.


【設問のとらえ方】
自由英作文の場合、期待されている内容と大きく外れたことを書いてはいけない。「期待されている」といっても、なにも誰もが驚く「素晴らしい」英作文が期待されているわけではない。

内容は比較的自由であり受験生それぞれの創意や独自性が多少は期待されているものの、設問で書くべき方向が指定されているので、その方向で書くべきなのだ。設問の意図がくみ取れなければ、極端な場合、それは指示違反とみなされ採点対象外であろうし、少なくとも、設問に書いてあることが理解し読解できなかったということで、作文に対する評価は低くなる。

今回の設問の押さえておくべきポイントは

How careful are you about what you eat for breakfast?

朝食の内容、つまり何を食べるか?で気をつけていることを述べることが求められているということ。


describe your habits regarding what many consider to be the most important meal of the day

朝食にまつわる自分が習慣的にしていることを述べるわけだが、その際に、多くの人が朝食が1日のうちで一番重要だと考えているわけだが、そのような考えを踏まえて自分の実践していることを述べるということだ。

よく言われているように、朝食は、午前中活動するエネルギーを脳や体に供給する。朝食抜きの生徒は、そうでない生徒に比べて成績が悪いという調査結果もある。エネルギー源がなく脳がうまく機能しないので学習成果に差が出るわけだ。このような、朝食の重要性としてよく知られていること、新聞等に報じられていることなどを踏まえて書くということが求められている。

【解答例】
I am careful not to skip breakfast, and when I eat breakfast, I try to eat rice, not bread. Breakfast is important because it gives energy of activity in the morning. Without it, your brain is short of energy and won’t function well. In the term of nutrition, breakfast needs to be balanced. If you eat cooked rice, you naturally want to eat miso soup and another dish using vegetable, egg, or fish. As a result, you can eat balanced breakfast. (81 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65839562.html

自由英作文対策:世界の人口問題

早稲田大学の法学部の入学試験では、自由英作文の傾向が変わった。グラフを読み取り、そしてそのグラフに表されている傾向を描写し、そして、グラフの傾向からわかる問題点を述べるというものである。

これは早稲田大学だけでなく、今後出題傾向として大きなものとなることが予想される傾向である。したがって、グラフの読み解きやその描写、グラフから問題点を見つける練習を重ねておくとよいだろう。

以下は、2017年2月に実施された早稲田大学法学部の英語の入学試験におけるグラフ問題について考えてみる。

①折れ線グラフの傾向を1文で述べる。
From 1860, the world population gradually began to increase and will be expected to peak in 2040, reaching 8 billion, and then sligthly to decrease toward the year of 2100.


②棒グラフの傾向を1文で述べる。
It is predicted that the population in developed regions will stay almost all the same, 1.2 billion, while the population in developing areas will probably rise from 5 billion to 6.9 billion.


③人類がこれから直面することになる問題を、グラフから1つもしくは2つ挙げる。自分の意見に対して根拠となる理由を述べる。


【解答例】
A problem humanity will face is food shortage. According the line graph, the population growth will be expected to continue until 2040. However, the condition for agriculture in the world is not so good as it used to be, because the land for food is destructed or polluted by the development of industries. As a result, food supply will not meet the demand of the increase in population. Another problem is that population will rapidly age, especially in developed areas, and society will have difficult in adapting to that condition. The bar graph shows the stability of the population in developed areas, which means that in those areas, there will be more and more elderly people with less and less children. This causes the problem of who will care elderly people. Care workers will be short in number, and perhaps the workers will have to be recruited in developing areas. However, this will change social structure of both developed and developing areas, which will also bring about distress to both areas. (171 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65839523.html

自由英作文:男女混合スポーツの是非

スポーツは男女別でやるべきか、それとも同一チームで男女が平等に参加してやるべきか?この話題について自分の意見を述べてみよう。もちろん、現行では男女別の競技で行われているスポーツが大半だが、特に子供のスポーツというのは教育的見地から見て、どのような在り方が望ましいのだろうか。

2017年2月実施の旭川医科大学の自由英作文は、girls / boysという語彙を使っていることからも子どものスポーツに男女別を持ち込むことについて自分の意見を英語で述べることが求められている。

(参考:2017.2月実施。旭川医科大学)
Should girls and boys be allowed to play on the same sports teams? What is your opinion? Give reasons with examples stating why some sports should or should not have boys and girls playing together. Write an essay in English.

(オリジナル解答)
I think in almost all sports girls and boys are allowed to participate together as long as they are primary school students. The major reason why I think so is among primary school students both girls and boys are almost the same in terms of stamina and physical strength. In fact, a very famous male Judo player says he was beaten by a female player when he was in the second grade in primary school.

Another reason why girls and boys should not be separated when they play sports is that they aren’t so conscious about their sexes when they are primary school students. After they go to middle junior high school, sports should be divided into separate teams both for females only and for males only. In that case, both players can concentrate on their play.

In conclusion, because females and males are biologically different, they naturally play separate sports except mixed table tennis, or badminton if they are adults. However, as long as they are elementary school students, difference between females and males haven’t shown yet clearly. Therefore, I think both girls and boys can participate together in every kind of sport. (194 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65838923.html

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