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大学入試英語や英検対策。文法から長文・自由英作文・和文英訳まで学習法や解答へのアプローチを解説

自由英作文の解答を見ることができます。どのように発想し、どのような表現を用いれば、題意に沿った内容の英文エッセイが書けるか、参考にしてください。

更新日: 2018年06月12日

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この記事は私がまとめました

大学入試英語や英検対策。文法から長文・自由英作文・和文英訳まで学習法や解答へのアプローチを解説しています。小さな私塾を主宰しています。学ぶ人とともに学んでいきます。

kawaiinaさん

英検1級:エッセイ・ライティング予想問題「電子マネー:Should Japan become a completely cashless society?」

英検1級のエッセイ・ライティング予想問題として、以下のテーマについて200~240 wordsであなたの考えを述べてほしい。

英検1級では、社会問題を論じ、自分の考えを論理的に伝える力が求められる。

“Should Japan become a completely cashless society?”


【解答】は以下に見ることができる。

なお、エッセイ・ライティング対策として、添削指導を希望する人には、当私塾ではコースを用意している。気軽に問い合わせてほしい。

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65847555.html

I don’t think it’s good that Japan becomes a completely cashless society. Some people, especially older people, can’t adapt to such drastic change, and the society will be chaotic.

Indeed, there are some advantages and conveniences to cashless society, but there are more disadvantages and risks in abolishing physical money such as coins and paper bills. The problem is how we handle dealings, saving accounts, transaction of money only through digital money. Even today, passwords are stolen on the Internet, and credit cards are used by someone else. Money is withdrawn from your bank accounts without your permission.

I know technology is advancing day by day in order to prevent those crimes and the security is strengthened. However, totally depending on digital money is dangerous. For example, imagine what will happen when disaster occurs. If a big earthquake hits Japan, and the possibility is very high, there will be blackouts in wide areas. Then, the record of dealings or saving accounts will disappear. You can’t buy necessary things because you don’t have means or medium of exchanges if real money is totally abolished in Japan. People trust physical form of the value because you can see it and touch it.

In summary, abolishing completely real money and totally depending on digital money aren’t a good idea. (216 words)

山形大学医学部・個別学力試験「英語」分析

山形大学・医学部を目指す受験生に英語・2次試験についてガイダンスをする。2次試験の概要を知っておいて早目の準備をしておこう。

・まず、山形大学は1次試験であるセンター試験重視だ。英語についてはセンター試験の得点率が90%以上が求められる。

・英語の2次試験でも確実に合格するには85%以上の得点率が必要だ。

(ただし、ここ2年くらい問題が極端に優しくなっているので、来年度の受験で同程度の難易度の問題が出されないかもしれない。山形大学は現在、学内で、パワハラや学生の自殺など問題点が噴出して、しっかり諸問題を解決できていない。英語の2次試験についても3年前に新傾向に切り替わり、切り替わったその年に平均点が極端に悪くなり、その反動で今度は極端に優しくなるなど、学内の混乱が反映されている。よって、もう一度繰り返すが、来年度入試でどの程度の難易度を山形大学側が設定してくるかは不明。どのような問題が出ても解ける準備だけは怠りなくしておくことが必要だ。そのためにも、出題傾向を知っておくことが必要だ。)

・長文が2題出題される。2018年実施の試験で、語数はおよそ、第1問が700語、第2問が400語。

・長文の語いの難易度は、センター試験の英文レベル。つまり高校の英語検定教科書に出てくる英単語でほぼ100%カバーできる。難しい語い、例えば2018年は、
toddler, presage, impracticable, numeracy
などには注がついている。

・設問が英文で書いてあることに戸惑うかもしれないが、慣れればどうということはない。どのような問いが出ているかというと、

(1)下線部の単語(または文)と同じ意味の単語(または文)を4つ選択肢から選択する 
(2)本文中の代用表現を略さずに全部言ったときの元の英文の形はどうなるか 
(3)本文中の内容について日本語で40~50字で説明する 
(4)英単語を並べ替えて正しい文を作る 
(5)質問の答えとなる英文を本文中から抜き出す 
(6)本文の内容に合うものを選択肢から選ぶ内容一致問題 
(7)下線部和訳 
(8)本文の内容に関する自分の意見を2~3文の英語で表現する

・実際の問題を以下に紹介するが、ほかの国公立大学医学部、私立大学医学部の個別学力試験(2次試験)と比較すると極端に簡単である。

以下に、問題を紹介する。ぜひ答えを見る前に自分でもやってみてほしい。

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65847352.html

英検1級エッセイ・ライティング対策:予想問題「失業問題」

英検1級のエッセイ・ライティングの問題を予想する。社会問題としての「失業」について考えてみてほしい。

では、以下の問題で200~240wordsのエッセイを書いてほしい。

Do you think the government should provide more support for unemployed people?


【模範解答】は以下から見ることができます。

I think the government should provide more support for the unemployed. Today, economic situation is quickly changing. So, in some industrial areas, workers are no more needed than they used to be, and then people in these areas lose their jobs. But it is not their fault, so the government should support those people to get a new job in other industrial areas.

One way to help them is that the government encourages them to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to perform a job in another field. Today, there is shortage of workers in home care industry. So if the government supports and encourages them to work in home care industry, it is not only a good thing for the unemployed, but also it helps solve the problem with aging society. Among the unemployment who have been trained in the government program, we can look for individuals who are best qualified to supply the service.

In most cases, the unemployed are not responsible for their being unemployed, because there are more and more part-time workers and their work status is unstable. They must quit their job after the contract period is over. It is the government that have been promoting such labor policy and increasing the number of unstable jobs. So the government is responsible for supporting unemployed people. (220 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65847246.html

英検1級エッセイ・ライティング予想問題:「運動の大切さ」How and why is exercise important?

運動は健康に良いと言われている。では、なぜ、どのように、運動は健康に良いのであろうか。英検1級エッセイ・ライティングの予想問題として以下の課題に取り組んでみてほしい。

How and why is exercise important?


【模範解答】は以下から見ることができる。
Exercise is very important for human health. More and more people are beginning to come to the realization of the importance of taking exercise. There are several backgrounds for this increased realization.

First, obesity has been focused on as one of the causes of health hazard, especially in developed countries. In rich countries, people tend to eat high calorie und unhealthy food such as fast food at fast-food restaurant. And this fat food makes people fat, which makes people more vulnerable to life style related diseases. In order to solve the problem of obesity, taking exercise is strongly recommended both to children and to adults.

Another background is the change of our life style. We lead a sedentary life, which means we work for almost whole the time sitting at desks. Of course, this is an unhealthy life style. Therefore, taking exercise is needed to improve the quality of life.

In this way, exercise contributes to our health by preventing us from becoming obese and stopping us from leading a sedentary lie. In addition, research data shows that taking moderate exercise helps people stay mentally healthy, live longer, and prevent dementia. In summary, exercise is very important because it has vast potential to solve the health problem that modern society is facing and to promote people’s health. (217 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65847007.html

英検1級エッセイ・ライティング予想問題:What is age friendly society like?「高齢者に優しい社会とはどのようなものか?」

日本の高齢化は進展している。若者が結婚し子どもを育てやすい社会を作り、出生者数を増やすべきという議論がある一方で、人口の高齢化という現状を認め、社会を高齢者が生活しやすいものに変えていくべきという考えもある。そこで、英検1級のエッセイ・ライティングの予想問題として

What is age friendly society like?
もしくは
What do you think age friendly society is like?


を予想してみる。高齢者に優しい社会や制度、生活とはどのようなものかを考えて、英語で表現してほしい。

【模範解答】は以下から参照できる。

We must make whole of the society adaptable to the place where elderly people feel comfortable living. The population of elderly people is becoming larger and larger, but the society doesn’t catch up with the trend. As a result, in many cases elderly people feel inconvenient.

For example, the traffic lights for pedestrians change so soon that elderly people can’t cross pedestrian crossing. In the streets, there are lots of steps so it’s dangerous for elderly people to walk around. Within houses too, there are many hindrances to prevent elderly people from living an independent life.

Furthermore, for elderly people who live in remote areas from cities, a car is indispensable means to transport themselves. But if they are too old to drive and they give up driving, they have no means of transportation and they are isolated from the society.

One solution for those problems is to build a compact, small and step-free city where elderly people can walk safely and within walkable distances they can have access to necessary facilities such as a hospital, a local government office, shops and so on. We should make age friendly society, where senior citizens feel comfortable, feel integrated to other members of the society, and can stay healthy.

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65846675.html

英検1級ライティング対策:予想問題:Should school children have jobs?

英検1級の1次試験が近い。ライティングの予想問題を出題する。取り組んでみる価値はある。ぜひ、考えてみてほしい。

Should school children have jobs?
このテーマは、要は「学生がアルバイトをすることはいいことか?悪いことか?」を考えて、自分の意見を表明するものだ。アルバイトをできる年齢であるので、中学生や高校生くらいを想定するとよいだろう。日本では、中学生のアルバイトは一般的ではないが、イギリスなどでは自分でお小遣いを稼ぐというのは一般的であるので、こういうテーマで論じることは、国際的な場面ではありうるだろう。

英検1級のエッセイは、社会的な問題について広い視点から論じることが求められているので、このテーマについても、学生が仕事を通して何を得ることができるのか、また、逆に失うものはないかということを考慮して、内容を深めるとともに、構成にも気を付けて書いてほしい。

【解答例】

I don’t think students should be stopped from working part-time as long as working doesn’t hinder their studies. Working part-time is a good experience for students. It teaches them valuable lessons about the world of work, and it can give them opportunity to manage money they earn.

Actually, I took a part-time job when I was a high school student. I taught school subjects to a younger child as a private teacher. The work taught me the responsibility. For instance, I was not allowed to be late for work because I was paid. In addition, having an experience of a private teacher helped me decide what career I should take. Now, I am a teacher in a private school. The experience of work prepared me for the future life.

However, being a student is a kind of privilege. Students can concentrate on their studies without worrying about their own living. Once they become adult and have a full-time job, there is almost no time to study or read books because work occupies nearly all their life. Thus, if they have free time, it’s a good idea to take up a prat-time job, for example, on weekends or school holidays. It will give them a valuable lesson such as value of hard work or the importance of controlling themselves.

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65846392.html

英検1級エッセイ予想問題「Digital money V.S. Hard currency」

英検1級の一次試験が近づいている。作文を苦手としている人も多い。以下のような予想問題を立ててみた。

今、社会では急激に「キャッシュレス」が広がっている。現金を持ち歩かなくても、買い物や決済ができるのだ。カードやスマホでの決済がかなりの割合を占める国も多い。そのような中で、日本は現金取引の割合が諸外国と比べると高い。政府は、経済発展のためにも、キャッシュレス化を推進しようという立場のようであるが、あなた自身はこの問題についてどう考えるか?

Digital money V.S. Hard currency

という表題で英文エッセイを書いてみてほしい。

【模範解答】
Personally, I prefer using real money to digital money for everyday purchase. It helps me save money and stop me from buying unnecessary things, because using real money always remind me how much is left inside my wallet. This is because I can count physically paper bills when I must pay the purchase at a counter. In contrast, if I use digital money, for example, a credit card, for my purchases, I don’t care how much total amount mu purchase is. This may be because credit cards are so convenient, I don’t need count paper money or get changes.

続きはこちらでご覧ください。
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65846080.html

英検1級ライティング予想問題「フェア・トレード」

英検1級予想問題
ライティングのテーマを予想してみました。

Do you support fair trade or not? Write your answer with reasons.

準備を進めておきましょう。

使える表現
・Personally, I do actually like a quality product, and I am willing to pay a bit more for it.
・Would you be willing to pay even more than you already do if it meant the farmer who grew beans(-food, crops, products) was getting a fairer price? – I would because that sort of thing is important.
・There is a growing trend among western customers of artisan cafes to be willing to pay more for ethically produced coffee.→There is a growing trend among customers around me to be willing to pay more for ethically produced products.
・Coffee drinkers are better able to choose ethically produced coffee that puts more money in the hands of the farmers.
・So the famers makes three-and-a half times as much money, which means a better quality of life for the farmer, their family, and their community.
・The simple choice of what chocolate and coffee you buy can mean the difference between life and death for some of the world’s poorest people.
・By buying fair trade products we can make a real difference to producers in developing countries.
・To them, getting a guaranteed fair price for their goods could mean being able to send their children to school, or putting them on the path out of poverty.
・Buying fair trade products is one of the easiest ways we can show compassion and solidarity towards the Third World farmers. It opens our eyes to some of the huge injustices in the world.

模範解答はこちらで見ることができます。
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65845643.html

英検1級:ライティング予想問題「夫婦同姓VS夫婦別性」

次回の受験日は6月3日(日)です。皆さん、対策は進んでいますか。

ライティングについては、英検1級にふさわしいと予想される題材で、何本か事前に書いておくことが対策になります。英検1級対策の指導をしてきた目から見て、書いておくべき主題を選んでいます。

今日の予想問題は、

Which surname do you think should be adopted when people get married?


です。

まずは、この話題で使える表現を学んでください。そのうえで、ぜひ、自分で解答を書いてみてください。英検1級の場合200~240 wordsと指定があります。書いた文章の添削については、私塾「無名塾」にご相談ください。

この話題で使える表現・覚えておくべき表現
・「女性が姓を変える」
Women traditionally take their husband’s name when they get married.


・「(新しいトレンドとして)男性が姓を変える」
A growing number of men are ignoring tradition and taking their new wife’s surname when they get married.


However, a growing number of couples in western culture are doing it differently. When they get married, the husband elect to take the wife’s surname.


・(具体例を挙げる時)「私が結婚した時、妻は姓を変えた」
When we were wed, my wife changed her family name.
My wife wanted to keep her surname, but was forced to adopt mine because that was the law where we got married.


・(具体例を挙げる時)「私が結婚した時、私(夫)は姓を変えた」
I took my wife’s surname when we married. It was an opportunity to acknowledge the unseen bias and sexism in our society.


・(言葉の定義)旧姓
A maiden name is the surname a woman had before she was married.


・旧姓を使用する。(外国の場合の旧姓の守り方)
These days, many women elect to keep their maiden name upon marriage and combine it with new husband’s in some way, sometimes by making the name double-barrelled. A double-barrelled name is two names that are connected by hyphen.


・妥協案「どちらの姓でも構わない」
The only reason I think anybody should take someone else’s surname is just for the creation of a family unit.



【模範解答】は ここで見ることができます。

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65844890.html

英検1級:ライティング予想問題「ドローンの是非」

2018年第1回の英検は6月3日(日)です。英検1級合格を目指す人を応援します。

英検1級での難関はエッセイ・ライティングです。事前に予想される主題について書く練習をしておくのが良いでしょう。

さて、今回はエッセイ・ライティングで出題される可能性が非常に高い主題を予想して扱ってみました。「ドロ-ンの是非」についてです。以下の、表現を参考に、ご自分でエッセイを書いてみてください。

トピックセンテンスや序論(introduction)に使える表現
・Drones have become commonplace in the skies above our heads. In certain cases they have been dangerous, but there are many new uses for them that are bringing us benefits too. From delivering parcels to saving lives, drones are taking off.

・Drones are in the news quite often for good and bad reasons. They’ve been used for many things from smuggling drugs, detecting water leaks and surveillance.

・Should we be welcoming the rise of the use of drones?

・Are they safe and are they necessary? I’ve heard about them being a hazard to aircraft because they’ve been flown close airports.

・I firmly believe that drones are beneficial to society.

・I feel strongly that drones have no place in our society.

・It is my opinion that not only are drones are good for our society, but they serve a vital role in protecting and saving lives.

・I am steadfast in my opinion that drones are harmful to our communities and should be outlawed.


賛成の根拠・反対の根拠などこの続きは、http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65844648.html

自由英作文・予想問題「homeschoolingの是非」

Some parents teach their children at home rather than sending them to school. Is this a good or a bad thing for children?


【解答例】
 
 Some people don’t like their children to go to school, so they decide to teach children at home. The advantage of homeschooling is having a parent as a teacher. Parents know best about their children. In addition, there are no bullies in homeschooling.

 However, children who homeschool have difficulty in making friends of their age. Homeschooling doesn’t give children opportunities to study and play with other children. As a result, homeschooling can’t develop social skills in children. Moreover, homeschooling may not develop academic skills in children, because parents are not always experts in education.

 Though there are some disadvantages about homeschooling, I support homeschooling. Homeschooling is the best way to develop individual characteristics of kids, because parents can give their children whatever the children want to learn whenever they want without caring about other children’s progress. In addition, these days, there are many good materials on websites for homeschooling kids. They can study at home even though their parents are not an expert teacher. (164 words)


http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65843280.html

自由英作文:予想問題「自分にとって特別な場所」

手紙に答える形で、次の英文に答えてみよう。
この形式は、横浜国立大学、新潟大学の自由英作文とも共通なので、予想問題や対策として役立ててほしい。

Can you help me with a class project? I have to write about places which are special to people. Can you tell me about a place that is special to you? Where is it? What does it look like? It doesn’t have to be a famous place. Just explain why it’s important to you.

Write soon, Sam.

【解答例】
Hello, Sam.
I’d like to give my answer to your question. My special place is Gunma in Japan. It is located 100 kilometers north of Tokyo. It has nothing special to attract tourists. However, the reason it is special for me is that I lived there for six years when I was a junior and senior high school student.
Gunma is very hot in summer. When I was a high school student, I belonged to a baseball club. Practicing baseball in summer was very tiring and exhausting. I was very sweaty and thirsty. However, at that time, drinking water when we were practicing was forbitten because it was believed to make players stronger.
In winter, Gunma is very cold and windy. I had to go to school 10 kilometers away from my home by bicycle against extremely strong wind. Temperature was extraordinarily low, but I didn’t wear a coat or sweater, because I was very hot pushing hard pedals of my bicycle.
Gunma is where I spent my best time, juvenile. Everything I experienced for six years in Gunma is my good memory even though it was bitter and exhausting. (190 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65843245.html

自由英作文:予想問題「制服一般について」

(予想問題)
学校の制服についての是非を述べさせる自由英作文は一般的であるが、この予想問題は「制服一般」について、思考する本格的な自由英作文である。思い浮かべてほしいのは、医者の白衣や警察官の制服やパイロットの制服。社会の中で制服を見かけるのは当たり前になっていて、そこの何の疑問を持たないかもしれないが、なぜ制服なるものが存在するのか、そこに人はどんな思いを抱くのかなど、考えてみるとこの問題には尽きない興味がわく。そこで、以下の予想問題に挑戦してみてほしい。

これは、早稲田大学、慶応大学、東京外国語大学、東京大学、国際教養大学など、英語での高度な表現力が求められる英語上級者向けの予想問題である。

Question: Can a uniform make people behave differently from they really are?
「制服についてあなたの考えるところを、英語で述べなさい」

【模範解答】
A uniform has mysterious power and has an effect in some way on the mentality or behavior of the people who wear a uniform. Because human beings have known such mysterious effect since the early history of humankind though they can’t explain it in an explicit way, people have been wearing uniforms.

It is a noticeable fact that some profession have uniforms and others don’t. This seems to mean that one of the functions of uniforms is related to profession. Some kinds of professions. especially ones that require some expertise, seem to have uniforms. Doctors and other medical profession, police officers and pilots have uniforms. This shows that uniforms may have a role in distinguishing expertise from other professions. People can easily recognize what profession those people are engaging by seeing their uniforms.

Another function of uniforms is to make a sense of belonging in a group whose members wear the same uniforms. In a sense, uniforms are a kind of barrier that separate in-group from the outsiders. Uniforms give the persons in a group pride of being a member of that group.

I don’t know the exact origin of uniforms, but a uniform reflects quite a unique human character, because I have never heard of or seen animals wearing or inventing a uniform. (214 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65842208.html

自由英作文:予想問題「ソーシャル・ネットワーキングの是非」

(予想問題)Should people be persuaded to stop social media?

【模範解答】
I think people should be persuaded to stop absorbing themselves into social media. Using social media distracted people from interest in things or people around them in real world. Mow a lot of people are watching their smartphones to access social network media in every place such as on the train or at cafes without showing no interest at all in everything surrounding them. This is a bit scaring scene to me. In addition, the addiction to social media or the engagement in networking for a long time cause health hazard such as lack of sleep or lack of exercise. They had better disconnect themselves from the network and go outside to play sports under the sun. This is a better and clever choice for them. (126 words)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65842115.html

自由英作文:予想問題「水道水とペットボトル、どちらを選ぶ?」

予想問題:「水道の水とペットボトルの水、あなたはどちらを選ぶ?」

これは、環境問題を意識した出題である。論点として設定すべきこととして、環境問題を意識してみよう。そして、環境問題を論じる時の表現が出てくるだろうか?解答例からも、表現を学んでほしい。

【解答例】
I choose tap water because tap water is more eco-friendly than bottled water. First of all, for filling a bottle with water, factories have to be built. Building and running a factory consume energy and emit greenhouse gases. On the other hand, for providing tap water, huge factories are not needed. There is also no need for trucks to provide water, which are used for transporting bottled water to retail stores. Secondly, for producing bottled water, groundwater is exploited. However, water reservoir under ground has bee dried up because some bottled water companies pumped up too much water. In contrast, tap water use rivers or lakes as a source of provision, which has less impact on the environment. Some people prefer bottled water because they believe tap water is polluted, unsafe, and not tasty. However, this is what manufactures of bottled water persuade them to believe. There is no scientific evidence that tap water is unsafe. Moreover, the taste of tap water ranks top when blind tests are conducted. Consumers choose tap water as tasty if they cannot see brand names. Tap water is eco-friendlier, more tasty, and safer. This is whay I choose tap water rather than bottled water. (200 wards)

http://blog.livedoor.jp/mumeisi/archives/65841967.html

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