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時代のキーワード:ビジネス英語編(Words of the Week)


更新日: 2019年10月20日

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☆setback vs drawback

setback: ”Something that happens that delays or prevent a process from developing”(物事の進行を遅らせる、または妨げる事象 Source: Cambridge Dictionary)

drawback: “a disadvantage or the negative part of a situation”(不便なこと、または否定的な側面 Source: Cambridge Dictionary)

Household appliance manufacturer Dyson’s decision to scrap its electric car project here due to a lack of commercial feasibility is a setback to Singapore’s vision to adopt a cleaner motoring system, experts told TODAY.


The Federal Communications Commission suffered a setback on Monday in a long-running legal battle when a federal appeals court struck down its latest effort to loosen U.S. media ownership rules.


One drawback of using a P/E ratio is that it considers market capitalization, but not the balance sheet. Thus, the metric does not reflect cash or debt held by the company.


"It's been described as a 'resolution revolution'. There is an exponential growth in the number of new images and 3D maps being produced and researchers are clamouring to be trained how to do it." …

… But its drawback is that the molecules are taken out of their natural environment and it is a snapshot of its shape rather than an observation of what it does in the cell.



☆top brass

「…元々英国で使われていた表現。19世紀の英国軍隊では幹部の帽子の鍔(つば)に、カシワの葉模様のメタル製の装飾が付けられていました。この真鍮製の飾りは、黄金色に似ていることから、指揮官や司令官のことをtop brassとかbrass hatなどと呼ばれるようになりました(Voice of America)」。これが転じて、企業や組織の幹部を表すようになったと言われています。

Top Brass:
“… they may have come from Britain. Leaders of the 19th century British army wore pieces of metal called oak leaves on their hats. The metal brass has a color similar to that of gold. So a leader or commander came to be called a member of the brass. Or he might have been called a brass hat. Or even the top brass.” (Voice of America)

Their shared business is causing headaches. The bosses of both companies are pointing fingers at each other over the handling of battery production. And Mr. Musk’s behavior has rattled Panasonic’s top brass, to the extent that some remain worried about tying their company’s fortunes too closely to Mr. Musk and his Silicon Valley car company.

出典WSJ, October 8, 2019 “Tesla Needs Its Battery Maker. A Culture Clash Threatens Their Relationship.”


CEO, COO, CFOなど”Chief … Officer”と称される役員クラスの経営幹部を総称して”C-Suite”と言います。また、「お偉いさん」、「大物」など砕けた表現として”big cheese”というスラングがあります。このほか「勝ち組」はtop dog、逆に「負け組」にはunder dogという表現があります。

☆lead by example

担当するチームやグループに所属する人を動かすため、自分で模範を示すこと。“to show the people you are in charge of what you want them to do by doing it yourself” (Longman Dictionary)

Last year, environmental activists criticized Japan for not joining the “Ocean Plastics Charter” at the G7 summit in Canada because of what officials called a “lack of preparedness.”

The only other participant not to sign on was the United States.

Later this month, Japan hosts the G-20 summit, and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe says plastic waste reduction will be one of the topics covered. Abe says that since Japan is hosting the meeting, it needs to lead by example.

出典Hawaii Public Radio, June 5, 2019 “Asia Minute: Japan Takes Steps to Reduce Plastic Waste”




☆Cluster of No.1 Strategy


(1) 特定分野のNo.1企業への投資
(2) 投資先経営に過度に関与せず、筆頭株主として20~30%の出資に留め、企業ブランド名を統一しない(参入と撤退を臨機応変に行える水準の出資比率)

Son, speaking in public in Taiwan for the first time, presented his views at the forum about his Japan-based conglomerate's vision for the future. He noted that artificial intelligence (AI) represents the biggest paradigm shift in human history.


Over the past 25 years, the Internet has brought revolutionary changes to advertising and retail businesses, but AI will be the revolution of the next stage, redefining all industries, Son said.


Son said SoftBank is responding to the paradigm shift with a "Cluster of No. 1 Strategy." The SoftBank Group's companies and venture capital firms will make full use of AI, which promises to solve many of the world's problems, he stressed.


☆tail risk


There is some sense to that: With all the potential economic threats out there, the Fed worries that staying on hold could be riskier than cutting rates. But the danger is that the Fed is entering a spiral where increasingly remote tail risks will lead it to keep lowering rates until it has next to no rate cuts left to give.

出典The Wall Street Journal, September 17, 2019 “The Fed’s Tail-Chasing Problem”


☆Operation Yellowhammer


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